WHAT IS A LANGUAGE?
Language is a collection of words and symbols which can be used to perform certain task or activities and to establish a communication between person to person.
In the same manner computer languages are the collection of predefine key words
which can be used to perform certain task and to communicate between to entities like between two machines or between human and computers or computers and others peripherals.
There are three different level of programming languages. They are
(1) Machine languages (low level)
(2) Assembly languages
(3) Procedure Oriented languages (high level)
(4) Fourth Generation languages (4 GLS)
(1) Machine Languages :-
Computers are made of No. of electronic components and they all are two – state electronic components means they understand only the 0 – (pulse) and 1 (non – pulse). Therefore the instruction given to the computer must be written using binary numbers. 1and 0.
Computers do not understand English or any other language but they only understand or respond to binary numbers (0 and 1). So each computer has its own Machine languages.
(2) Assembly Languages :-
As it was very tedious to understand and remember 0’s representing numerous data and instruction. So to resolve this problem mnemonics codes were developed. For example add is used as symbolic code to represent addition. SUB is used for subtraction. They are the symbolic representation of certain combination of binary numbers
S U B
Which represents certain actions as computer understand only Machine language instructions a program written in Assembly Language must be translated into Machine languages. Before it can be executed this translation if done by another program called assembler. This assembler will translate mnemonic codes into Machine languages.
(3) Procedure Oriented Languages
In earlier assembly languages assembler programs produced only one Machine languages instruction for every assembly languages instruction. So to resolve this problem now assembler were introduced. Which can produce several machine level instructions for one assembly language instruction. Thus programmer was relieve from the task of writing and instruction for every machine operation performed. These languages contains set of words and symbols and one can write program with the combination of these keywords. These languages are also called high level languages. Basic, Fortran, Pascal and COBOL. The most important characteristic of high level languages is that it is machine independent and a program written in high level languages can be run on any computers with different architecture with no modification or very little modification.